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Monday, October 22, 2012

Indigenous Village Tenganan, Karangasem regency, Bali: Bali Aga people his village


* From Natural Disasters Cosmology research, JICA Projects and Tsunami Centre ITB in 2007
Tenganan is one of the villages where community indwelling Bali Aga or original Balinese. Tenganan village built in the 11th century AD and is located approximately 70 kilometers east of Denpasar, or rather in the District Manggis, Karangasem regency. Located in a valley on the slopes of Mount Agung, close the Straits of Lombok, Bali, Tenganan village is geographically isolated areas appear to be. This village area covers 900 hectares.

The entrance to the house in Tengganan many uses gate like thisNamed Tenganan which according to the local language means the center because it is located in the middle of a valley surrounded by three hills: Bukit Kangin, Kaja, and Kauh. I Wayan Widya, adat, said that the King granted land in Tenganan Bedahulu the services of their ancestors to find a horse owned by the king. The horse lost when would be sacrificed for a yadnya or ceremony. Now, to capture the event, placed a stone as a symbol of the horse's body locations cut.
People also called Tenganan Bali Aga or original Balinese people. Because they are the descendants of the original Balinese who have lived on the island long before the era of the Majapahit exodus from the land of Java, when the empire collapsed. The majority of Hindus Tenganan. However, unlike other Hindus in Bali, village residents embraced the flow of God Indra, known more democratic. Bottom line: do not recognize caste and do not differentiate the rights of men and women.

Their life was simple. Before touched by tourism and the outside world, the manufacturing technology is still using a mixture of stone and bricks from clay. The brick-making process can take about a month. The stones conceived in such a way and held together with clay. Tenganan residential area surrounded by a wall. On the side wall next to the North, South, East and there is a gate called lawangan. Tenganan settlement is divided into three custom Banjar, the Banjar Kauh (west), Central Banjar (Middle), and Banjar Kangin (East). Banjar Kangin called Banjar Pande, which is further divided into two settlements, namely: Pande Kaja (North / Mountain) and Pande Kelot (South / Sea) [1]. In each of these there are two rows of houses Banjar people, the left and right of the village (impromptu) built on communal land village called Karang village.
Settlements in Tenganan adopt convergent pattern. Stretching from the north and the more modestly to the south. Each row consists of two rows of houses that convene reeds and entrance facing the village street. Building custom predominantly located in the middle of the village. Above ground surrounded woods, arranged neatly row of settlements, fields, and place of the ceremony. Interestingly, all the land is owned by indigenous peoples. That is, the only people allowed to live and use the land by agreement and custom-awig awig - book of customs regulations. To use the house and take the forest will be decided through collective rebellion village or a meeting of village leaders. However, personal items instead not sanctioned in this village. Personal space is given to objects on the ground, the trees were planted, and the house and its contents.

Kauh Banjar which is located in the west, can be said to be the main part of the settlement area because almost all of the buildings located in this section. These buildings include the traditional grand hall (holy hall), hall petemu (meeting hall), hall kul kul [2] (tower drums), Pawon villages (villages Dapu), Pawon cadet (kitchen boy), Wantilan (hall, hall Jineng (granary), and bale dating (place to relax).Bale Kul-Kul
Settlement patterns Tenganan community also has its own peculiarities. Each family occupies a coral head which is the pattern of settle in the village. Reefs consist of four series extends from north to south, each facing the impromptu (street). All buildings in Tenganan has the same style and materials. all buildings abstinence to be changed, unless the building Paon and meten bale architecture that can be changed as of today. Each building corals always have the following:
1. Coming awang: yard entrance located at the front and menghadapawangan.2. Bale flowers: Building lengthwise, occupying the outer wall of the yard along the road until the road, and generally consist of three rooms. Usefulness as a bale bungaa dalah performing the ceremony pritya yadnya, to human yadnya and dewayadnya and subak ceremonies Dehe and subak stripling; places some equipment, and a bed for the parents who have passed a certain age.3. Sanggah Intersection: small building usually amounted to one to three pieces for worship or intersection Betara-Betara, especially Betara of Mount Agung. Pura Basic, Betara of cry, and sebagaimnya. The building is not necessarily present in every family.4. Middle Bale: a building with two rooms open and the porch (divan) or edge. The upper part of the building was used as a granary. Both open space is located in the outer space near jelanan used for funerals (where the body) as well as space for the birthplace tebanan and put bantenpada certain times. Middle bale daily is used for the bed, sitting, receives guests and others. The building consists of wall board.5. Bale Meten: building for the bed or storing items. This building may be changed if the owner is unable or architecture meets certain conditions.6. Paon: kitchen consists of one to three elongated space located next section.7. Sanggah kelod: corrected a building located between the bale and balemeten biga, which faces north, where prayer and offerings.8. Thebes: yard located at the very back of the house, where the mengkandangkan pigs, taking out the trash and planting vegetation. In addition, there are three tebe linings, the hall where the bodies specifically for children who have not been on her teeth.
Bale Kenca

Sanggah kelod

In addition there are special buildings belonging impromptu village located in the west, namely:1. Bale AgungIn general, traditional villages in Bali have Bale Agung as the three elements of heaven. Bale grand Tenganan village is located in an open space with a large enough size, extends from north to south. Basic building has a rectangular shape berikuran 50x5 meters high and 1 meter. Building upon measuring 47x3 meters and a height of 1 meter, made of wood Ketewel (jackfruit wood). As many as 28 pole pieces and the roof of palm fiber. The main function of the bale agung is sangkepan (meeting) village manners, either every day or during the ceremony. In addition, as the village like a storage inventory selunding (gamelan)
2. Bale BanjarBale bale row is sacred which should only be used for something that is sacred and forbidden besifat The meeting remedy obstruction or death. In addition it is also the bale banjar reserves owned by the village hall. The building is a rectangular base measuring 13.5 x 4 meters with a height of 50 cm, consisting of a pile of stones cemented with clay. Hall upon measuring 12 x 2.5 meters with a height of 80 cm, consisting of wood and bamboo. Pole totaling 10 pieces and the roof made of leaves palpalan (coconut)
3. Bale KencaBale kenca or pekenca located northeast bale agung that serves as a place to talk about an important matter that leads to persumpahan customary way. Building a rectangular base with a size of 4 x 3 meters high and 70 cm, consisting of stack stone. Hall upon measuring 3 x 2 meters with a height of 65 cm. material of wood and bamboo. 4 pieces numbered poles and roofs made of palm fiber.
4. Bale PatemonPatemon Bale is the meeting hall of three pieces. Position lined north bale agung. Bale Patemon was used as a meeting place for youth organizations (wipe cadet).
Most of the village of Tenganan were Hindus, but they have differences with the Hindu people of Bali adopted generally. Hindus in Tenganan further highlight the role of Lord Indra. In addition, they also adhere to indigenous beliefs such as ancestor worship Tenganan (ancestor worship); believe in the existence of spirits around their homes, believing the objects or plants that have a soul and feelings like humans, and believe the magical powers derived from objects that are outstanding.

In the event of a disaster, they will hold a ceremony to cleanse the village from all impurities. The ceremony is called nalespat (purification ceremony), and nubun dawing (planting ceremony offerings). Preparations for the ceremony took almost a year. Ceremonies are held every year in Tenganan is Kasa, Ngalegi, Sagudalam, Kedasa, Kapat, Kesanga
In their life cycle there are some ceremonies marking the transition from one phase to another. Such as tooth filing ceremony for those who have a teenager, pandan war ceremonies for adolescents to adulthood, marriage, and death. In the traditions of Bali Aga yanguntuk status marks the transition from child to teen fight disemarakkan the attraction between the two men, both young and mature, rubbing each other thorny pandan leaves to his opponent's body. The ceremony is called Mekare-karean or Pandan War, which is regularly held between the months of June-July.Pandan War


In Pandan War, many supplies to be prepared a young buds when it comes time to move into adulthood. They need to know that life is not always smooth because there is rarely a storm hit. Advice that is to be conveyed through the ritual of parents Usaba Sambah. A traditional ceremony Tenganan Village, Mangosteen district, Karangasem regency, Bali, to release their teenage children to the age of puberty.
Ritual Usaba Sambah divided into two rounds. First, ritual offerings for girls called daha. In this section, the early morning daha required to trace the path to the location of ritual offerings in Bukit Kangin escorted by young men who are called sons. This activity is both a symbol of journey step by step toward maturity. Arriving at the top of the hill, the daha then present offerings are believed to be received as the Creator-daha daha a virgin is still considered sacred.
After complete offerings laid on the table of offerings, the daha then each crowned with slices of coconut to white skinned. Sliced ​​coconuts is also worn around the neck of the youth who had accompanied them climb to the top of the hill.
Towards evening, daha and cadet back down the hill toward the place with the giant swing. This is where the ritual continued daha maturity. They had to climb a similar carousel swing it, then rotated up and down, celebrating the ups and downs of life. By the end of this section, the daha was crowned the adults who are ready to navigate the real life. This ritual is concluded with a dance sacred to the Creator as the daha gratitude.
The next day or the second half Usaba Sambah ritual, turn the cadet underwent stages toward maturity. In this section, they are prepared to fight one on one in a round of "pandan war." Before arriving at the peak of the war pandanus, the youth entertained with attractions cockfighting first performed the elders. Cockfighting is unique. Any chicken that losing a leg to be cut. This rule represents every creature must risk whatever he had chosen in life.
The daha also involved in the ritual for youth. They mix traditional medicines are prepared if there is a cadet who was injured in the war pandan. Ingredients of these drugs include turmeric and vinegar. It felt very sore at all when dilulurkan to the wound. However, these drugs are very potent herb. In just 3 days all wounds can sembuh.Sementara, the youth gathered in a hall Patemon - local village hall - prepare offerings to be offered in the ritual peak. Together with the parents, they are also preparing thorny pandan leaves that will be used as a sword in battle. The leaves were arranged in layers in a single bond.
After all the war equipment is prepared, the cadet is ready to fight. Prior to the battlefield, all youth drinking traditional first useful to trigger a sense of daring. After that, the parents beating the drums of war omen gamelan sounds.
Cadet duel one-on-one like in battle. To enliven the atmosphere, parents and local residents witnessed. Each participant attacked each other with a series of thorny pandan bertamengkan a shield-shaped webbing. Quite often participants bleeding from scratches sharp thorns pandan leaves. And the loser must immediately retreat. While the win immediately ordered against another cadet who dare challenge. Until finally all the cadets had a turn to duel.
There's nothing to lose or win in this fight. After the war pandan, all terunaberkumpul together in a cheerful and familiar atmosphere. While eating and treating wounds with traditional medicine has formulated the daha. There was no wound in their hearts much less rancor. All that has been done in the ceremony is a symbol of that in real life they would find a lot of battles and wounds. And they must have the courage and strategy to face it in order to come out a winner (Tim SCTV Images)

EARTHQUAKE in Tenganan Dauh Tukad

On Friday, January 2, 2004, at 4:59 pm earthquake never happened in the traditional village of Tenganan Dauh Tukad. Tectonic earthquake measuring 6.1 on the Richter scale shook the Bali and Lombok [3], From the description of Putu, custom Bendesa Tenganan, almost all the houses were destroyed at the time. Especially the houses that still uses the old architecture. Of the approximately 666 people or 190 households, at least 51 families homeless. In addition to homes, the earthquake also destroyed buildings Banjar Hall, Temple Family, and Pura Desa heaven.
At the time of the incident, residents actually was sleeping soundly in the contest. Some villagers of Tenganan Dauh Tukad, like I Made Kartika, I Ketut Suartha, or I Nyoman Lena, claiming that they all were fast asleep when the quake came to shake. Or, it means derunya did not get heard unless the result that crushes house, startling residents. As recognition I Made Kartika, he just woke up after his wife, Ni Putu Putri, screaming hysterically for help. In a semi-conscious state, Kartika rushing and carrying their second child, I Made Dode (3), and ran to save themselves. Arriving in a safe place outside the home, the wife's back screaming hysterically as their first child, I Putu Januartha, yet come together or still in the house.
Pura Desa heaven, namely Pura Bale Agung, Pura Puseh, and Pura Dalem, the village was damaged by an earthquake that resulted in the disruption of the implementation of the ceremonial village of Tenganan Dauh Tukad. Prajuru (adat) villages in the meeting agreed to postpone the ceremony until the number of the temple was repaired and re-consecrated.
"In the near future, early February, we were supposed to Third Ngusaba ceremony. However temporarily, due to the disaster, the ceremony was postponed, perhaps until next year," says etiquette (people) Tukad Dauh Tenganan Village, Made Togya.
After approximately two years after the earthquake, in November 2006, the ceremonies were delayed it can only be implemented [4] The study began in February 2006. All residents in the village of Tenganan both overseas as well as those in mutual cooperation in all matters. Because to hold a big ceremony requires considerable expense and considerable supplies. Including fruits and animals used for offerings. Bli Putu told preparation, she reached around Bali to look for it. Information obtained from these offerings need Rauh. The offerings include buffalo, but one big banana in the bunch obtained in Bangli, a thousand bananas (banana setandannya amount to very much), banana wrap (bananas which form loops in tandannya), 10 species of palm whose name others, pigs base (wild boar), pork belangpanjut (white tail and mouth, while another body is black), this pig is not secured. But it can be replaced with a striped alone.
For the reconstruction of houses collapsed due to earthquake also performed mutual cooperation. External assistance is managed directly by the people. The goal is to aid the entry given to those entitled to it. For houses that did not suffer major damage-such as cracks, are not given any help. Until now there are still some rudimentary building repairs. New homes built after the earthquake not all follow the typical architecture of Tenganan, as recognized under the house with the old architecture is not strong against earthquake shocks. Including homes that were not destroyed were partially renovated to make it more powerful.

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