Bali Island is part of the small Sunda islands along the 153 km and 112 km wide approximately 3.2 km from the island of Java Astronomically, Bali is located at 8 ° 25'23 "south latitude and 115 ° 14'55" East latitude tropical mebuatnya like the rest of Indonesia.
Mount Agung is the highest point in Bali as high 3.148meter. The volcano last erupted in March 1963. Mount Batur is also one of the mountains in Bali. Around 30,000 years ago, Mount Batur erupted and produced a terrible disaster ddi earth. Unlike in the north, the southern part of Bali is irrigated lowland rivers.
Based on the relief and topography, in the middle of the island of Bali lies the mountains that extends from west to east and between these mountains are volcanic cluster is Mount Batur and Mount Agung and the volcanic mountain is not Mt Merbuk, Mount Patas, and Mount Seraya. The existence of these mountains cause by Geographic Area Bali is divided into 2 (two) parts that are not the same, namely North Bali with a narrow lowland and less sloping, and South Bali with a broad lowland and sloping. Bali slope consists of flat land (0-2%) covering 122,652 ha, undulating land (2-15%) covering 118,339 ha, steep land (15-40%) covering 190,486 ha, and the land is very steep (> 40% ) covering an area of 132,189 ha. Province of Bali has 4 (four) lakes located in mountainous areas are: Lake Beratan, Buyan, and Lake Batur Tamblingan.
Other important places are Ubud as art center located in Gianyar regency, while Kuta, Sanur, Nusa Dua and the beach of Lovina Singaraja regency is located in several places that a tourist destination, both the resort and the beach.
The total area of Bali Province is 5636.66 km2 or 0.29% of the territory of the Republic of Indonesia. Administratively, Bali is divided into 9 districts / cities, 55 districts and 701 villages / wards.
HISTORY OF BALI
The first inhabitants of the island of Bali is expected to come in 3000-2500 BCE who migrated from Asia. Remains of stone tools were found in the village Cekik located in the western part of the island. Prehistoric times and then ends with the arrival of Hindus from India to the 100SM.
Culture Bali later gained strong influence of Indian culture, the process is faster after the 1st century AD. Name Balidwipa (island) began to be found in various inscriptions, including inscriptions Blanjong issued by Sri Kesari Warmadewa at 913M and mention the word Walidwipa. Estimated at about this time that Subak irrigation system for rice cultivation was developed. Some religious and cultural traditions also began to develop at that time. Majapahit Empire (1953-1500 AD) who was a Hindu and was centered on the island of Java, had founded the kingdom of subordinates in Bali around the year 1343 AD It was almost across the country are Hindus, but as the advent of Islam stood Islamic kingdoms in the archipelago, among others, led to the collapse of Majapahit. Many nobles, priests, artists, and other Hindu community when it withdrew from Java to Bali.
The Europeans who first discovered Bali is Cornelis de Houtman from the Netherlands in 1597, though a Portuguese ship had previously been stranded near the promontory Bukit, Jimbaran, in 1585. Netherlands through the VOC began implementing land occupation in Bali, but continue to get resistance so until the end of the power of their position in Bali is not as solid as their position in the Java or the Moluccas. Starting from the northern region of Bali, since the 1840s the Netherlands has become a permanent presence, which was originally done by pit-sheep various rulers of Bali that mutual distrust of each other. Dutch major attack by sea and land against the Sanur area, and was followed by the Denpasar area. Bali party who lost in numbers and weaponry do not want to experience embarrassment due to surrender, thus causing the war to die or Puputan involving all people both men and women including the king. An estimated 4,000 people were killed in the incident, although the Netherlands has ordered them to surrender. Furthermore, the Dutch governors who ruled only a few gave its influence on this island, so that local control of religion and culture generally does not change.
Japan occupied Bali during World War II, and it was a military officer named I Gusti Ngurah Rai Bali forming forces 'freedom fighters'. Following the Japanese surrender in the Pacific in August 1945, the Dutch promptly returned to Indonesia (including Bali) to re-establish its colonial rule like the situation before the war. It is opposed by resistance forces Bali who was using Japanese weapons.
On 20 November 1940, fighting broke out Puputan Margarana that occurred in the village of Marga, Tabanan, central Bali. Colonel I Gusti Ngurah Rai, 29 years old, led the army of the east Bali to carry out attacks to death on the Dutch armed forces. All members of the battalion Bali killed them all, and make it as a last Balinese military resistance.
In 1946 the Dutch made Bali as one of 13 areas part of the new State of East Indonesia was proclaimed, named as one of the state rival for the Republic of Indonesia which was proclaimed and headed by Sukarno and Hatta. Bali then also incorporated into the United States of Indonesia. when the Netherlands recognized Indonesian independence on December 29, 1949. In 1950, Bali officially leave perserikatannya with Dutch and legally became a province of the Republic of Indonesia.
The eruption of Mount Agung that occurred in 1963, had shaken the people's economy and caused many of the Balinese transmigrated to other areas in Indonesia.
In 1965, along with the failure by the G30S coup against the national government in Jakarta, Bali and many other areas there was a crackdown against members and sympathizers of the Communist Party of Indonesia. In Bali, it is estimated more than 100,000 people were killed or missing. Nevertheless, the events in the early days of the New Order are up to now has not managed to be disclosed by law.